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                                人生哲學頻道-哲學是一門局限于某種具體對象的知識體系不同的學問
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                                論牟宗三哲學中的易學研究

                                時間:2018-10-08 14:29來源:人生哲理網 作者:田步祥 點擊:

                                On MU Zong-san's I Ching learning in his philosophy

                                WANG Xing-guo (Institute for Confucianism & Chinese Traditional Thoughts,Yunnan Normal University,Kunming 650092,China)

                                  內容提要:牟宗三的易學研究為的是從易學中發見與解析中國哲學、中國思想,旨在抉發中國的玄學與道德哲學,而不是作一種歷史的研究。他從哲學上為《易易》的解釋提供了一個邏輯符號論的模型,為中國古典思想的現代詮釋作出了首開先河的有益嘗試;他對易學的“實在論的價值論”或“超越的內在”的價值論的詮釋,與康德、維特根斯坦關于道德世界的“超越的外在論”不同;他對易之道德世界的分析與解釋也是極其形式化的邏輯的。在這些分析與解釋中,《周易》的“邏輯世界”或“符號世界”變成了語義的價值世界,或者說,作為“數理物理”世界的《周易》變成了價值論的道德世界。無論是在敘述方式,或內容的闡釋與解析上,牟氏的這項研究都是十分新穎的,為國內所未有。但是,牟氏的易學研究只是他學思的開端起步,相對于他的邏輯研究來說,易學研究構成了他的哲學思想發展進路的前邏輯起點,而非邏輯起點,具有形式的象征意義。

                                  Purpose for MU Zong-san to study I Ching learning was to discover and interpret Chinese philosophical thoughts in I Ching learning,aiming at digging out Chinese metaphysics and moral philosophy but not a study of I Ching learning history.He offered philosophical model of logic symbol for interpreting Zhouyi and worked out a first beneficial attempt at the modernistic interpretation of Chinese classics thoughts.His interpretations of the axiology of realism or the axiology of transcendental immanence of I Ching learning differ from I.Kant and L.Wittgensteins transcendental externalism of the moral world.His analyses and interpretations of I Ching were also much of formal logic.And Zhouyi's world of logic or world of symbols became a semantic world of axiology,or Zhouyi as a numerical and physical world became a moral world of axiology in his analyses and interpretations.No matter in his styles of account or his elucidation and interpretation on the contents,Mu's study of I Ching learning was quite unique and fresh.Yet,MU's study of I Ching learning was only the starting point for his academic thought.Compared to his study of logic,his study of I Ching learning was only a pre-logical but not a logical starting point,possessing a formal symbolic significance.

                                  關鍵詞:牟宗三/前邏輯起點/邏輯起點/數理邏輯方法論/實在論的知識論/實在論的價值論/MU Zong-san/study of logic/study of I Ching learning/realism/axiology

                                  標題注釋:本文是作者博士論文《從邏輯思辯到哲學架構——牟宗三哲學思想進路》第一章的一部分。

                                  牟宗三的易學研究,主要表現為其處女作《從周易方面研究中國之元學與道德哲學》(重印時,更名為《周易的自然哲學與道德函義》,以下簡稱為《易哲學》)一書),它構成了牟宗三哲學思想的不可或缺的一個部分,居于不可忽視的重要地位,在中國易學史和哲學史上具有無可抹煞的價值。如所周知,在牟宗三的哲學思想的實際演進中,他是從對易學的研究而走向邏輯研究的,這就在表象上給人造成一種印象,似乎牟氏從易學研究而邏輯研究是一個“轉向”或轉折。[1]然而,無論是牟宗三哲學本身就有一個嚴整的系統,還是從一種系統或體系的觀點把它看作一個獨立完整的系統,牟宗三哲學系統演進脈絡的邏輯起點,都是在于他對現代邏輯思想與數學思想的批判。由此而建立起來的牟氏的邏輯哲學與數學哲學,才真正地構成了牟宗三哲學思想系統的邏輯發展的始點。(注:沈青松教授認為,牟宗三哲學“主要以知識批判為起點”。沈教授所指“知識”也許包括邏輯與數學,雖然也可講得通,但相應于牟氏對知識的看法來說,有不夠確切之虞。因為牟宗三所講的“知識”主要是指科學知識,他把邏輯與數學視為科學知識的基礎條件。牟氏所批判的不是知識本身,而是構建知識的理論基礎。)[2]從這個意義上說,牟宗三的易學研究,并不是他的哲學思想系統的邏輯起點。因此,本文對牟宗三易學的論述,乃是基于對以下兩個問題的回答:1.牟氏的易學研究與牟氏哲學思想系統發展的關系;2.與第1點相關聯,牟氏的易學研究與他的邏輯研究的關系。以下,分別結合這兩個問題來對牟氏的易學進行簡單地考察。

                                  一、前邏輯起點及其形式象征意義

                                  對易學的研究是牟宗三哲學思想的來源之一。但是,從牟氏易學研究的內容主旨上看,它對牟氏哲學思想的發展進路究竟構成什么樣的關系和意義呢?如所周知,牟氏易學研究的成果是《易哲學》一書,這是他獨立運思與撰著的第一部哲學著作,他寫這部書的時候年僅二十四歲,還是一個尚未畢業的大學生。應該承認,無論在任何意義上說,一個二十四歲的大學生能寫出這樣一部數十萬言的大書,本來就是一件很了不起的事,稱得上是一個創舉。然而,恰因如此,它又常常不免幼稚,甚至失誤。牟氏自己也認為這部書“只能算是青年不成熟之作品”,只是他的“學思之開端起步”,或“一生命之開端起步,其他皆可肇始于此也”。[3](重印志言)牟氏把這“一生命之開端起步”,看成是他學思發展第一階段即“直覺的解悟”階段的一部分。[4][5](第三章)可見,牟氏早期的易學研究與他后來的哲學思想的發展不無關系,而且具有不可忽視的意義。但是,從牟氏的整個哲學思想系統與演進的思路來看,他的易學研究或處女作雖然是他生命的開端或學思的開端,卻并沒有構成他的哲學的邏輯起點,或思維的進路,勿寧說牟氏的易學研究或《易哲學》一書只是他的哲學思想的自然起點,或前邏輯起點。

                                  哲學發展的自然起點,或前邏輯起點與邏輯起點是完全不同的,——盡管不能排除二者可能在某一哲學中是統一的,可惜這種統一對牟宗三哲學并不存在。哲學的自然起點是哲學渾沌中的一個自發的和偶然的原始起點,它不能規定哲學的方向與思路,不能始終貫穿于一種哲學發展的過程之中;哲學的邏輯起點則不然,在本質上,它是哲學自覺運思的在邏輯發展上必然要求與必須存在的出發點或支撐點,它規定與制約著哲學的發展方向與思路,如果沒有它,一個哲學系統就不可能展開與形成。事實上,一個沒有邏輯起點或邏輯支點的哲學系統是不能設想的。因此,任何一個哲學系統都是建立在一定的邏輯起點或邏輯支點上的。哲學的邏輯起點或支點是內在于哲學自身發展的必然的矢向點,它甚至能夠貫徹于哲學發展的始終。這取決于它自身的內在規定性。然而,哲學的邏輯起點或支點自身所具有的規定性是無定形的。它既可以是一個假設,也可以是一種假說或觀點,還可以是一個經驗事實,或命題陳述,或一種本體論的承諾……等等。不可否認,在一個哲學系統內,邏輯起點與自然起點可能是重合或統一的。但在這種重合或統一之間既沒有必然性,也沒有普遍性。因此,一種哲學的邏輯起點與自然起點是否重合或統一,對于這種哲學是無足輕重的。從牟宗三哲學來看,情況就是如此。牟氏哲學的邏輯起點,是由他從對邏輯與數學思想的批判中所建立起來的邏輯觀與數學觀,或只說是邏輯觀亦可。因為他的邏輯觀內在地決定與支配著他的哲學思想演進的方向與思路,構成了他的哲學思想的一條重要進路。牟氏早年對易學的研究,雖然使他取得了一項重要的哲學成果,但是作為這項成果的《易哲學》一書對他以后整個哲學思想演進的方向與思路,并沒有產生決定性或支配性的影響,它只是牟氏學思的開端起步,有助于了解牟氏哲學思想的來源與發展的全幅過程;相對于他的邏輯研究來說,易學研究只是他的哲學思想的前邏輯起點,而非邏輯起點。

                                  牟氏在《易哲學》一書中宣稱:

                                  本書之作,不在宣傳方法,不在宣傳主義,不拘守倫理人事,不喧嚷社會基礎,但在指出中國純粹哲學與純粹科學之間的問題,列而陳之以轉移國人浮夸之磽風。(自序一·7)[3]

                                  又聲明:

                                  本書是想藉著《周易》以及研究《周易》者之著作而抉發中國的玄學思想與其道德哲學的,其目的不在解析《周易》這本書,所以不是為讀《周易》者而作的入門書,仍只是吾近來研究西洋思想時而留意到中國思想所欲說的話……。(導言·D)[3]

                                  上列引文中有兩點可注意:其一,這本書的主旨是藉著《周易》和研究《周易》的著作,抉發中國的玄學與道德哲學,亦即是中國的純粹哲學與純粹科學;其二,這本書的思想是作者研習西方哲學與數理邏輯而照察到中國思想所作的闡發,這一點提示出了寫作的思想學術背景。首先,我們從前一點來說明《易哲學》一書的主旨與牟氏哲學思想系統演進的關系。

                                  牟氏寫作此書,是受到了西方哲學的刺激,他相信在中國的思想中“有一套中國式的自然哲學可與懷悌海那一套相比論”[3](重印志言),而且這套自然哲學已對他敞開;與此同時,這套中國式的自然哲學也關聯到一種道德哲學。他認為這套中國式的自然哲學與道德哲學可以代表中國的思想。他對書名作過這樣一個解釋:

                                  本書定名曰:“從周易方面研究中國之玄學及道德哲學。”名雖冗長,亦頗允合。其主要含義有二:一非注解,二非史述。中國思想,自非一支,然最占勢者,厥為周易。故如其說“從周易方面研究”,倒不如直謂“中國之玄學及道德哲學”。(自序一·2)[3]

                                  可見,這部書在實質上并不是一本真正的“易學”著作,只不過是假藉易學來闡發“中國之玄學及道德哲學”。因此,“本書最大目的在確指中國思想中之哲學的系統,并為此哲學的系統給一形式系統焉。”[3](自序一)所謂“給一形式系統”,就是對中國思想中的這一“實際系統”(注:這里的“形式系統”與“實際系統”,是牟氏從馮友蘭接受過來的用語。)作一邏輯分析或解析,從而使它在邏輯分析的方法中以一個形式系統的面相呈現出來。張東蓀先生為這本書寫的序言中也著重指出:“惟以為惟有牟君這樣的研究古籍方法始足為‘哲學’的,因之牟氏的著述是‘哲學的’而不是‘史學的’。”[3](張序)這表明牟氏的這部書是一部關于中國思想的真正的哲學著作。

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