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                                人生哲學頻道-哲學是一門局限于某種具體對象的知識體系不同的學問
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                                “萬物靜觀皆自得”

                                時間:2018-10-06 15:06來源:人生哲理網 作者:田步祥 點擊:

                                  內容提要:在宋明新儒家看來,宇宙人生是不可分的,仁者“靜觀”萬物時的渾然與物同體,與其生命精神的內省體驗相關聯。由自然界鳶飛魚躍的活潑生機,可見天地生命流行的生生之仁,而仁體就在人心里;故在返觀心體的直覺活動中,能獲得自適、自得之樂,體驗到自然和諧之美與生趣盎然的詩意,融會貫通心學與詩學。

                                  關鍵詞:靜觀/自得/儒家心學/詩學

                                  對于重視心性修養的宋明新儒家而言,除了要領會性理作為萬物本體的意義外,對生生之仁的內心觀照和生命體驗也是非常重要的。情感體驗是人之生命存在的一種基本方式,仁體和道理存在于人心之中,是與生命情感相聯系的本體存在,對心性本體的直覺要以內在體驗做基礎,所以修養工夫的“靜觀”與“自得”實不可分。靜觀萬物而洞明心體,具有仁者渾然與物同體的胸懷,不僅可得性情之正,還可尋得“孔顏樂處”,使日常生活饒有鳶飛魚躍般的活潑詩意。故新儒家的心學派于此特別加以強調,并有詩為證,就連明言作詩果無益的理學大師朱熹,也不乏這方面的吟詠性情之作;但用吟詩方式表達性命自得的內心體驗,將心學與詩學融會貫通,當以主張于靜中養出端倪的白沙之學為典型。

                                  一

                                  對宇宙人生的詩意觀照和情感體驗,在儒家哲學中是由來已久的。如《論語·先進篇》里,孔子對曾點“浴乎沂,風乎舞雩,泳而歸”的贊賞,表明在生活中追求悠然自得的詩意和精神樂趣,也不失為儒者的一種人生理想。《論語·雍也篇》的子曰:“賢哉,回也!一簞食,一瓢飲,在陋巷,人不堪其憂,回也不改其樂。”以及子曰:“知者樂水,仁者樂山。”既是對安貧樂道的高尚人格的肯定,又是對滲透了人之道德情感的自然山水的禮贊。這種人生情趣,這種合道德意志與美感為一的“樂”的體驗,能使儒者在道德修養中感受到內心充實之美,故二程受學于周敦頤時,周敦頤“每令尋顏子、仲尼樂處,所樂何事。”(注:程顥、程頤《二程集》第16頁,中華書局1981年版。)做人要有好心情,內心之樂是幸福的源泉,也是心靈美的體現,對于道德人格的完成具有重要意義。

                                  在《顏子所好何學論》中,程頤以為顏淵所樂之事是好學,要學以至圣人之道,“是故覺者約其情使合于中,正其心,養其性,故曰性其情。”(注:程顥、程頤《二程集》第577頁,中華書局1981年版。)這種“性其情”之說,主旨是以性理正心,要化心為性,用性理約束情感,令人嚴肅而緊張,故心中實無樂趣可言,有悖于周敦頤的教誨。真正能領會“孔顏樂處”的是程顥,他說:

                                  《詩》可以興。某自再見茂叔后,吟風弄月以歸,有“吾與點也”之意。又說:“周茂叔窗前草不除去,問之,云:‘與自家意思一般。”(注:程顥、程頤《二程集》第59-60頁,中華書局1981年版。)

                                  吟風弄月是一種寄情于物的體驗,是借山水風月表達心中樂趣。周敦頤不除掉窗前之草,也是同樣的意思,即以欣欣向榮的草之生意,印證自家心中之仁。這種“樂”,這種“意思”,只有親身體驗才能感受到,是一種渾然與物同體的精神境界,故不能用理智作概念分析,卻可以用具有詩意的形象語言來表達。

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